Paul Ehrlich was born on this date in 1854. He was a German physician and scientist who worked in the fields of haematology, immunology, and chemotherapy. He invented the precursor technique to Gram staining bacteria. The methods he developed for staining tissue made it possible to distinguish between different types of blood cells, which led to the capability to diagnose numerous blood diseases. His laboratory discovered arsphenamine (Salvarsan), the first effective medicinal treatment for syphilis, thereby initiating and also naming the concept of chemotherapy. Ehrlich popularised the concept of a “magic bullet”. He also made a decisive contribution to the development of an antiserum to combat diphtheria and conceived a method for standardising therapeutic serums. In 1908, he received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his contributions to immunology. In 1914 Ehrlich signed the controversial Manifesto of the Ninety-Three which was a defence of Germany’s World War I politics and militarism.
Albert Einstein was born on this date in 1879. He was a German-born theoretical physicist. He developed the general theory of relativity, one of the two pillars of modern physics (alongside quantum mechanics). He is best known for his mass–energy equivalence formula E = mc