Society: Arts and Science – September 8

Give Blood Regularly Donating blood takes about an hour and can save the life of three of your neighbours. Type O donors are universal suppliers of whole blood. Type AB donors are universal suppliers of plasma. All blood donors supply important medical factors of a wide range of treatments for accident victims, surgery candidates, and health therapies. No matter what type of blood you have, no matter the Rh factor, or other aspects of your blood, you can provide someone in your community with a better life.
Welcome Newcomers to Your Community Many communities have a Welcome Wagon organization to introduce new neighbours to the community. The idea is to let your new neighbours know what is available in the community so an informal effort will have a similar result. A housewarming gift or meal and information about services available in the community are all you need to begin. Whether they are moving from across town or from around the world, you will be building the structure for a future community as well.

The Nobel Prize is bestowed annually in categories as selected by Swedish and Norwegian committees in recognition of cultural or scientific advances. The 1895 will of Swedish inventor Alfred Nobel established the prizes.
Frédéric Mistral was born on this date in 1830. He was a French writer and lexicographer of the Occitan language. Mistral won the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1904 and was a founding member of Félibrige and a member of l’Académie de Marseille. He was born in Maillane in the Bouches-du-Rhône département in southern France. His name in his native language was Frederi Mistral (Mistrau) according to the Mistralian orthography or Frederic Mistral (/Mistrau) according to the classical orthography. Mistral’s fame was owing in part to Alphonse de Lamartine who sang his praises in the fortieth edition of his periodical Cours familier de littérature, following the publication of Mistral’s long poem Mirèio. He is the most revered writer in modern Occitan literature. Alphonse Daudet, with whom he maintained a long friendship, devoted to the Poet Mistral one of his Lettres de mon moulin, in an extremely eulogistic way.
The Institut de droit international (Institute of International Law) is an organization devoted to the study and development of international law, whose membership comprises the world’s leading public international lawyers. In 1904 the Institute received the Nobel Peace Prize. The institute was founded by Gustave Moynier and Gustave Rolin-Jaequemyns, together with nine other renowned international lawyers, on this date in 1873 in the Salle de l’Arsenal of the Ghent Town Hall in Belgium. The founders of 1873 were Pasquale Stanislao Mancini (Rome), President, Emile de Laveleye (Liege), Tobias Michael Carel Asser (Amsterdam), James Lorimer (Edinburgh), Wladimir Besobrassof (Saint-Petersburg), Gustave Moynier (Geneva), Jean Gaspar Bluntschli (Heidelberg), Augusto Pierantoni (Naples), Carlos Calvo (Buenos Aires), Gustave Rolin-Jaequemyns (Ghent), and David Dudley Field (New York).
Hideki Yukawa ForMemRS FRSE died on this date in 1981. He was a Japanese theoretical physicist and the first Japanese Nobel laureate. He was born as Hideki Ogawa in Tokyo and grew up in Kyoto. In 1929, after receiving his degree from Kyoto Imperial University, he stayed on as a lecturer for four years. After graduation, he was interested in theoretical physics, particularly in the theory of elementary particles. In 1932, he married Sumi Yukawa, and his family name was changed to Yukawa; they had two sons, Harumi and Takaaki. In 1933 he became an assistant professor at Osaka University. In 1935 he published his theory of mesons, which explained the interaction between protons and neutrons, and was a major influence on research into elementary particles. In 1940 he became a professor in Kyoto University. In 1940 he won the Imperial Prize of the Japan Academy, in 1943 the Decoration of Cultural Merit from the Japanese government. In 1949 he became a professor at Columbia University, the same year he received the Nobel Prize in Physics, after the discovery by Cecil Frank Powell, Giuseppe Occhialini and César Lattes of Yukawa’s predicted pion in 1947. Yukawa also worked on the theory of K-capture, in which a low energy electron is absorbed by the nucleus, after its initial prediction by G. C. Wick. Yukawa became the first chairman of Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics in 1953. He received a Doctorate, honoris causa, from the University of Paris and honorary memberships in the Royal Society, Royal Society of Edinburgh, the Indian Academy of Sciences, the International Academy of Philosophy and Sciences[citation needed], and the Pontificia Academia Scientiarum. He was an editor of Progress of Theoretical Physics and published the books Introduction to Quantum Mechanics (1946) and Introduction to the Theory of Elementary Particles (1948). In 1955, he joined ten other leading scientists and intellectuals in signing the Russell–Einstein Manifesto, calling for nuclear disarmament. Yukawa retired from Kyoto University in 1970 as a Professor Emeritus. Owing to increasing infirmity, in his final years, he appeared in public in a wheelchair. He died at his home in Sakyo-ku, Kyoto, on 8 September 1981 from pneumonia and heart failure, aged 74. His tomb is in Higashiyama-ku, Kyoto.
Hermann Staudinger died on this date in 1965. He was a German chemist who demonstrated the existence of macromolecules, which he characterized as polymers. For this work he received the 1953 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. He is also known for his discovery of ketenes and of the Staudinger reaction.
John Franklin Enders died on this date in 1985. He was an American biomedical scientist and Nobel laureate. Enders has been called “The Father of Modern Vaccines. In 1949, Enders, Thomas Huckle Weller, and Frederick Chapman Robbins reported successful in vitro culture of an animal virus—poliovirus. The three received the 1954 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine “for their discovery of the ability of polioviruses to grow in cultures of various types of tissue”. Meanwhile, Jonas Salk applied the Enders-Weller-Robbins technique to produce large quantities of the polio virus and then developed a polio vaccine in 1952. Upon the 1954 polio vaccine field trial, whose success Salk announced on the radio, Salk became a public hero but failed to credit the many other researchers that his effort rode upon, and was somewhat shunned by America’s scientific establishment. In 1954, Enders and Peebles isolated measles virus from an 11-year-old boy, David Edmonston. Disappointed by polio vaccine’s development and involvement in some cases of polio and death—what Enders attributed to Salk’s technique—Enders began development of measles vaccine. In October 1960, an Enders team began trials on 1,500 mentally retarded children in New York City and on 4,000 children in Nigeria. On 17 September 1961, New York Times announced the measles vaccine effective. Refusing credit for only himself, Enders stressed the collaborative nature of the effort. In 1963, Pfizer introduced a deactivated measles vaccine, and Merck & Co introduced an attenuated measles vaccine.
Willard Frank Libby died on this date in 1980. He was an American physical chemist noted for his role in the 1949 development of radiocarbon dating, a process which revolutionized archaeology. For his contributions to the team that developed this process, Libby was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1960. Libby was appointed Instructor in the Department of Chemistry at the University of California, Berkeley, in 1933 and during the next ten years was promoted successively to Assistant and then Associate Professor of Chemistry. He spent the 1930s building sensitive Geiger counters to measure weak natural and artificial radioactivity. In 1941 he joined Berkeley’s chapter of Alpha Chi Sigma. He was awarded a Guggenheim Memorial Foundation Fellowship in 1941 and elected to work at Princeton University, but on December 8, 1941, this Fellowship was interrupted for war work on America’s entry into World War II, and Libby went to Columbia University on the Manhattan District Project, on leave from the Department of Chemistry, California University, till 1945.[4] Libby was responsible for the gaseous diffusion separation and enrichment of the uranium-235 which was used in the atomic bomb on Hiroshima. In 1945 he became a professor at the University of Chicago. In 1954, he was appointed to the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. In 1959, he became Professor of Chemistry at University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), a position he held until his retirement in 1976. He taught honors freshman chemistry from 1959 to 1963 (in keeping with a University tradition that senior faculty teach this class). He was Director of the University of California statewide Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics (IGPP) for many years including the lunar landing time. He also started the first Environmental Engineering program at UCLA in 1972. Although Libby retired in 1977, he, a member of the National Academy of Sciences, American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and the American Philosophical Society, remained professionally active until his death in 1980.

Society: Arts and Science – September 1

Product management and project management have many important differences and these critical functions are also connected in many important ways. For example, management of both products and projects can be described, designed, developed and deployed using the same ten disciplines. These disciplines are scope management, time management, cost management, human resources management, quality management, risk management, communications management, procurement management, stakeholder management, and integration management. You may recognize these as the ten disciplines promoted by the Project Management Institute and they exist in various forms in measuring the maturity level of many organizational factors. Without minimizing other aspects of leadership, good management revolves around processes and procedures which allow the organization to achieve its goals. This perspective reflects the ways we can describe management as finding more ways to succeed. There may be situations where one or more of these disciplines are less important than others but someone must make the effort to consider each of these disciplines. To reiterate, projects and products require the effort to manage these planning disciplines.
In general practice, scope management is considered the most important discipline to be employed in both product management and project management. There are many methods used by successful organizations that rely almost exclusively rely on managing the scope of their products or projects. Without the other management disciplines, these products or projects are difficult creatures. Obviously integration management must be weaved through all aspects of both product management and project management.

  • In project management, setting the charter can be the most important measure of success. The chartering process involves setting the goals and constraints of the project that will result in a successful project. Many organizations fail to set these measures with the project sponsor at this important stage. Quantitative and qualitative measures from the organization’s strategic plans lead to the best choices for the tactical use of projects.
  • In product management, the same processes are important for a successful product launch. Here the chartering process is also required to find the goals and constraints of the product. Typically, experienced product developers are aware of their need to determine what the final product must be. Market research, in all its many forms, is used in almost all successful product launches to produce an effective product charter. The quantitative and qualitative aspects of the proposed product must be measured against the needs of the market.

The charter results from the initial efforts of all disciplines and it is critical to successful product management and project management.
All ten disciplines provide important processes and procedures that serve a purpose in launching products or completing projects according to the measures of success. Outside scope management, a business case sets out the financial reasons for taking on the project or the product as well as the measures that will be used through the project or product cycle. The project plan or product plan will result from these initial processes along with input from the team built to bring the plan to fruition. The product or project cycle moves on with collecting requirements, melding the requirements with the organizational and environmental aspects and result in the framework for completing the work. Assuring that all the time, financing, and human resources that are required means there is a reasonable chance for success. Whether you are managing a project or a product, the ten disciplines are the foundation for success.

The Nobel Prize is bestowed annually in categories as selected by Swedish and Norwegian committees in recognition of cultural or scientific advances. The 1895 will of Swedish inventor Alfred Nobel established the prizes.
Francis William Aston FRS was born on this date in 1877. He was a British chemist and physicist who won the 1922 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his discovery, by means of his mass spectrograph, of isotopes, in a large number of non-radioactive elements, and for his enunciation of the whole number rule. He was a fellow of the Royal Society and Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge.
François Charles Mauriac died on this date in 1970. He was a French author, member of the Académie française (from 1933), and laureate of the Nobel Prize in Literature (1952). He was awarded the Grand Cross of the Légion d’honneur in 1958.

Society: Arts and Science – June 9

When getting the word out about our offerings, I used the usual first step of talking to as many people as possible in our target markets. Here was my approach to developing the questions I asked while cold calling. Marketing begins by asking people what they want and assuring that you have what they want.
On a similar track of thinking, you will get much more valuable marketing information if you are asking what people have done in situations rather than what they will do or would do in hypothetical situations. You probably don’t have to think about all the ways that information about an actual situation is better than someone’s opinions about your fantasies. And think about improving the relationship with each customer by conducting a respectful discussion about something the customer remembers and wants to talk with you about it.
Again research, and common sense, shows we are not very good at predicting how we will react. First, we know that the hypothetical situation is extremely unlikely to ever occur as presented. Most of us have a hard time predicting what we will have for lunch tomorrow. Second, we know we will have different resources available if we ever face a situation anything like the hypothetical one. For example, we are not likely to be on the phone with a marketer when we face the situation. So it is much more effective to ask our prospect how they dealt with an actual situation. A good way to help your prospect is to ask questions of the type: “Tell me about the last time you ‘had this experience’ or ‘had this problem’ or ‘had this feeling.’

The Nobel Prize is bestowed annually in categories as selected by Swedish and Norwegian committees in recognition of cultural or scientific advances. The 1895 will of Swedish inventor Alfred Nobel established the prizes.
Bertha Felicitas Sophie Freifrau von Suttner (Baroness Bertha von Suttner, Gräfin (Countess) Kinsky von Wchinitz und Tettau) was born on this date in 1843. She was an Austrian novelist, radical pacifist, and, 1905, the first woman to be awarded the Nobel Peace Prize and the second to be awarded the Nobel Prize.
Adolf Otto Reinhold Windaus died on this date in 1959. He was a German chemist who won a Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1928 for his work on sterols and their relation to vitamins. He was the doctoral advisor of Adolf Butenandt who also won a Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1939. Adolf Windaus was born in Berlin. His interest in chemistry was raised by lectures of Emil Fischer. He started studying medicine and chemistry in Berlin and later in Freiburg. He got his PhD in early 1900 and focused on cholesterol and other sterols at the University of Freiburg. In 1913 he became professor for chemistry at the University of Innsbruck[chronology citation needed] and in 1915 he changed to the University of Göttingen[chronology citation needed] where he stayed until his retirement in 1944. He was involved in the discovery of the transformation of cholesterol through several steps to vitamin D3 (Cholecalciferol). He gave his patents to Merck and Bayer and they brought out the medical Vigantol in 1927.
Henry Hallett Dale was born in Islington, London, on this date in 1875 to Charles James Dale, a pottery manufacturer from Staffordshire, and his wife, Frances Anne Hallett, daughter of a furniture manufacturer. Henry was the third of seven children, one of whom (his younger brother, Benjamin Dale) became an accomplished composer and warden of the Royal Academy of Music. Henry was educated at the local Tollington Park College and then The Leys School Cambridge (one of the school’s houses is named after him) and in 1894 entered Trinity College at Cambridge University, working under the physiologist John Langley. For a few months in 1903 he also studied under Paul Ehrlich in Frankfurt, Germany. Also in 1903, Dale assisted Ernest Starling and William Bayliss in the vivisection of a dog, by removing the dog’s pancreas and then killing the dog with a knife, which ultimately led to the events of the Brown Dog affair. Dale received his M.D. from Cambridge in 1909. While working at the University College London (UCL), he met and became friends with Otto Loewi. Dale became the Director of the Department of Biochemistry and Pharmacology at the National Institute for Medical Research in London in 1914. He was knighted in 1932, receiving the Order of Merit in 1944 and the Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the British Empire in 1948. Dale served as President of the Royal Society from 1940 to 1945. He became a Fullerian Professor of Chemistry at the Royal Institution in 1942. During World War II, he served on the Scientific Advisory Panel to the Cabinet. In 1904, Dale had married his first cousin Elen Harriet Hallett and had a son and two daughters.
George Wells Beadle died on this date in 1989. He was an American scientist in the field of genetics, and Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine Nobel laureate who with Edward Lawrie Tatum discovered the role of genes in regulating biochemical events within cells in 1958. Beadle and Tatum’s key experiments involved exposing the bread mold Neurospora crassa to x-rays, causing mutations. In a series of experiments, they showed that these mutations caused changes in specific enzymes involved in metabolic pathways. These experiments led them to propose a direct link between genes and enzymatic reactions, known as the One gene-one enzyme hypothesis.

Becoming exceptional in our careers

Following his extensive research, Malcalm Gladwell famously described his mastery principle as a requirement for ten thousand hours of practice. For chess players, doctors, writers and many more experts in their fields, he found that the ten thousand hour mark was the boundary around which experts wrapped themselves. In addition, he found that serious study accounted for half that time when someone was exceptional in their field of mastery. Serious study involved immersing themselves in the literature of their field and interacting with others who had greater skill than they had. Does this sound familiar? If not, surely you can see the sense of it because we can find all kinds of examples.
In Europe, through the Middle Ages, much of the work that remains was completed under a guild system. The apprentice system was still the way in which work was done through the Renaissance and into the Industrial Age. Only recently have we considered, and developed an extensive educational system, that sells, promotes, and rewards on the basis of short periods of training resulting in certification and recognition of expertise. We can easily convert the mastery principle into one hundred hours a week over four years or forty hours a week over ten years. Where in that range do we fall in mastering a subject? How do we assure that we will be exceptional in our field by working with others of great skill? How do we assure we are involved in serious study? One of the methods of succeeding is through deliberate practice. Deliberate practice involves a course of study in a field where the exercises have been chosen to improve particular aspects.
Deliberate practice involves high repetition. Deliberate practice occurs when high repetition to leading work just beyond the candidate’s ability. This practice provides clues towards successful completion. The exercises try to lead practice to real life situations. In this way the candidate is prepared for doing the work in the real world. With feedback, deliberate practice is hard, especially mentally so that the candidate can enjoy success at every level. This is particularly useful if each exercise has a clear, correct answer. Many of us do not have the luxury of having jobs where the problems resolve to a clear, correct answer. One of the system theories that have been found to describe how organizations work is that today’s problems are caused by yesterday’s solutions. This is true of most qualitative measures. We can set quantitative measures but often we don’t know if we have set the correct quantities. In many cases, we know what it would take to be exceptional in our field but we don’t know how to build the infrastructure that would help us and our colleagues achieve the growth.

Marketing Questions: Completing the square

When getting the word out about our offerings, I used the usual first step of talking to as many people as possible in our target markets. Here was my approach to developing the questions I asked while cold calling. Marketing begins by asking people what they want and assuring that you have what they want.
Perhaps this goes without saying, but in my experience, it cannot be said often enough. Marketing research conducted on friends and family is of little value. It may help you work out the kinks and otherwise improve your presentation content or process. However, the results are unlikely to transfer to your market. Whatever your market, you must take the perspective that strangers will be the buyers who make your enterprise a success.
You will learn a great deal from testing your approaches on friends and family but not about your market. "Sounds good, where do I sign up!" may cement the relationship with your best friend, but it is unlikely to lead to the success of your enterprise.

Marketing Questions: Spread yourself around

When getting the word out about our offerings, I used the usual first step of talking to as many people as possible in our target markets. Here was my approach to developing the questions I asked while cold calling. Marketing begins by asking people what they want and assuring that you have what they want.
Your marketing effort should be a continuing process. Especially when marketing is not your full-time job, you may think that talking with two or three people is enough and that it is time to move on to something else. Especially if you are a small business owner, your time may be very valuable and you may be tempted to consider your marketing is a “been there, done that” activity. Research has shown that using an ongoing approach with time set aside for cold calling and following up with others in the sales cycle, supports continuing market growth and customer retention. You might also want to consider that small market numbers may distort your conclusions and may soon be out of date.
Obviously, your marketing information could be distorted if you are relying on only one demographic, only one region, or only one season. Distortions might often enter your data where you are relying on too few aspects of you survey sample. You will often be tempted to cut off your marketing efforts too soon. The only practical solution is to assure your marketing efforts are regular, consistent, and continuing.