Society: Arts and Science – January 23

Today is International Thanksgiving Day! A day to celebrate your life in a special way…

Swedish and Norwegian committees bestow Nobel Prizes in recognition of cultural or scientific advances. In 1895, the will of Swedish inventor Alfred Nobel established the prizes.
Hideki Yukawa ForMemRS FRSE was born on this date in 1907. He was a Japanese theoretical physicist and the first Japanese Nobel laureate. He was born as Hideki Ogawa in Tokyo and grew up in Kyoto. In 1929, after receiving his degree from Kyoto Imperial University, he stayed on as a lecturer for four years. After graduation, he was interested in theoretical physics, particularly in the theory of elementary particles. In 1932, he married Sumi Yukawa, and his family name was changed to Yukawa; they had two sons, Harumi and Takaaki. In 1933 he became an assistant professor at Osaka University. In 1935 he published his theory of mesons, which explained the interaction between protons and neutrons and was a major influence on research into elementary particles. In 1940 he became a professor at Kyoto University. In 1940 he won the Imperial Prize of the Japan Academy, in 1943 the Decoration of Cultural Merit from the Japanese government. In 1949 he became a professor at Columbia University, the same year he received the Nobel Prize in Physics, after the discovery in 1947 by Cecil Frank Powell, Giuseppe Occhialini and César Lattes of Yukawa’s predicted pions. Yukawa also worked on the theory of K-capture, in which a low energy electron is absorbed by the nucleus, after its initial prediction by G. C. Wick. Yukawa became the first chairman of Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics in 1953. He received a Doctorate, honoris causa, from the University of Paris and honorary memberships in the Royal Society, Royal Society of Edinburgh, the Indian Academy of Sciences, the International Academy of Philosophy and Sciences[citation needed], and the Pontificia Academia Scientiarum. He was an editor of Progress of Theoretical Physics and published the books Introduction to Quantum Mechanics (1946) and Introduction to the Theory of Elementary Particles (1948). In 1955, he joined ten other leading scientists and intellectuals in signing the Russell–Einstein Manifesto, calling for nuclear disarmament. Yukawa retired from Kyoto University in 1970 as a Professor Emeritus. Owing to increasing infirmity in his final years, he appeared in public in a wheelchair. He died at his home in Sakyo-Ku, Kyoto, on 8 September 1981 from pneumonia and heart failure, aged 74. His tomb is in Higashiyama-Ku, Kyoto.
Otto Paul Hermann Diels was born on this date in 1876. He was a German chemist. His most notable work was done with Kurt Alder on the Diels–Alder reaction, a method for diene synthesis.[1] The pair was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1950 for their work. Their method of synthesising cyclic organic compounds proved valuable for the manufacture of synthetic rubber and plastic.[2] He completed his education at the University of Berlin, where he later worked. Diels was employed at the University of Kiel when he completed his Nobel Prize–winning work, and remained there until he retired in 1945. Diels was married, with five children. He died in 1954.




Society: Arts and Science- July 8


Nobel Prizes are selected annually by Swedish and Norwegian committees in recognition of cultural or scientific advances. The 1895 will of Swedish inventor Alfred Nobel established the prizes.
Igor Yevgenyevich Tamm was born on this date in 1895. He was a Soviet Russian physicist who received the 1958 Nobel Prize in Physics, jointly with Pavel Alekseyevich Cherenkov and Ilya Frank, for their 1934 discovery of Cherenkov radiation.
Sin’ichirō Tomonaga died on this date in 1979. He was a Japanese physicist, influential in the development of quantum electrodynamics for which he was jointly awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1965 along with Richard Feynman and Julian Schwinger. Born in Tokyo, he was the second child and eldest son of a Japanese philosopher, Tomonaga Sanjūrō. He entered the Kyoto Imperial University in 1926. Hideki Yukawa, also a Nobel Prize winner, was one of his classmates during undergraduate school. During graduate school at the same university, he worked for three years as a lab assistant. After graduate school, he joined Nishina’s group in Riken. In 1937, while working at Leipzig University, he collaborated with the Werner Heisenberg research group. Two years later, he returned to Japan due to the outbreak of the Second World War, but finished his doctoral degree in the study of nuclear materials with his thesis extending work done while in Leipzig. In Japan, he was appointed to a professorship at the Tokyo University of Education. During the war, he studied the magnetron, meson theory, and his “super-many-time” theory. In 1931, he became a researcher in Yoshio Nishina’s laboratory at RIKEN. In 1948, he and his students re-examined a 1939 paper by Sidney Dancoff that attempted but failed, to show that the infinite quantities that arise in QED can be cancelled with each other. Tomonaga applied his super-many-time theory and a relativistic method based on the non-relativistic method of Wolfgang Pauli and Fierz to greatly speed up and clarify the calculations. Then he and his students found that Dancoff had overlooked one term in the perturbation series. With this term, the theory gave finite results; thus Tomonaga discovered the renormalization method independently of Julian Schwinger and calculated physical quantities such as the Lamb shift at the same time. In the next year, he was invited by Robert Oppenheimer to work at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton. He studied a many-body problem on the collective oscillations of a quantum-mechanical system. In the following year, he returned to Japan and proposed the Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid. In 1965, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics, with Julian Schwinger and Richard P. Feynman, for the study of QED, specifically for the discovery of the renormalization method. He died of throat cancer in Tokyo in 1979.He was awarded the Order of Culture in 1952 and the Grand Cordon of the Order of the Rising Sun in 1976.
Robert Burns Woodward died on this date in 1979. He was an American organic chemist. He is considered by many to be one of the pre-eminent organic chemists of the twentieth century, having made many key contributions to the subject, especially in the synthesis of complex natural products and the determination of their molecular structure. He also worked closely with Roald Hoffmann on theoretical studies of chemical reactions. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1965.


Society: Arts and Science – March 31

Today is International Thanksgiving Day. Find a way to celebrate your life today…
Swedish and Norwegian committees bestow Nobel Prizes in recognition of cultural or scientific advances. In 1895, the will of Swedish inventor Alfred Nobel established the prizes.
Sir William Lawrence Bragg CH OBE MC FRS was born on this date in 1890. He was an Australian-born British physicist and X-ray crystallographer, discoverer (1912) of the Bragg law of X-ray diffraction, which is basic for the determination of crystal structure. He was a joint winner (with his father, Sir William Henry Bragg) of the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1915: “For their services in the analysis of crystal structure by means of X-ray.” This was an important step in the development of X-ray crystallography. He was knighted in 1941. To date, Lawrence Bragg is the youngest Nobel Laureate, having received the award at the age of 25. He was the director of the Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge, when the discovery of the structure of DNA was reported by James D. Watson and Francis Crick in February 1953.
Hans Fischer died on this date 1945. He was a German organic chemist and the recipient of the 1930 Nobel Prize in Chemistry.
Sin’ichirō Tomonaga was born on this date in 1906. He was a Japanese physicist, influential in the development of quantum electrodynamics for which he was jointly awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1965 along with Richard Feynman and Julian Schwinger.
Born in Tokyo, he was the second child and eldest son of a Japanese philosopher, Tomonaga Sanjūrō. He entered the Kyoto Imperial University in 1926. Hideki Yukawa, also a Nobel Prize winner, was one of his classmates during undergraduate school. During graduate school at the same university, he worked for three years as a lab assistant. After graduate school, he joined Nishina’s group in Riken. In 1937, while working at Leipzig University, he collaborated with the Werner Heisenberg research group. Two years later, he returned to Japan due to the outbreak of the Second World War, but finished his doctoral degree in the study of nuclear materials with his thesis extending work done while in Leipzig.
In Japan, he was appointed to a professorship at the Tokyo University of Education. During the war, he studied the magnetron, meson theory, and his “super-many-time” theory. In 1931, he became a researcher in Yoshio Nishina’s laboratory at RIKEN. In 1948, he and his students re-examined a 1939 paper by Sidney Dancoff that attempted but failed, to show that the infinite quantities that arise in QED can be cancelled with each other. Tomonaga applied his super-many-time theory and a relativistic method based on the non-relativistic method of Wolfgang Pauli and Fierz to greatly speed up and clarify the calculations. Then he and his students found that Dancoff had overlooked one term in the perturbation series. With this term, the theory gave finite results; thus Tomonaga discovered the renormalization method independently of Julian Schwinger and calculated physical quantities such as the Lamb shift at the same time.
In the next year, he was invited by Robert Oppenheimer to work at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton. He studied a many-body problem on the collective oscillations of a quantum-mechanical system. In the following year, he returned to Japan and proposed the Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid. In 1965, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics, with Julian Schwinger and Richard P. Feynman, for the study of QED, specifically for the discovery of the renormalization method. He died of throat cancer in Tokyo in 1979.He was awarded the Order of Culture in 1952 and the Grand Cordon of the Order of the Rising Sun in 1976.




Society: Arts and Science – September 8

Give Blood Regularly Donating blood takes about an hour and can save the life of three of your neighbours. Type O donors are universal suppliers of whole blood. Type AB donors are universal suppliers of plasma. All blood donors supply important medical factors of a wide range of treatments for accident victims, surgery candidates, and health therapies. No matter what type of blood you have, no matter the Rh factor, or other aspects of your blood, you can provide someone in your community with a better life.
Welcome Newcomers to Your Community Many communities have a Welcome Wagon organization to introduce new neighbours to the community. The idea is to let your new neighbours know what is available in the community so an informal effort will have a similar result. A housewarming gift or meal and information about services available in the community are all you need to begin. Whether they are moving from across town or from around the world, you will be building the structure for a future community as well.

The Nobel Prize is bestowed annually in categories as selected by Swedish and Norwegian committees in recognition of cultural or scientific advances. The 1895 will of Swedish inventor Alfred Nobel established the prizes.
Frédéric Mistral was born on this date in 1830. He was a French writer and lexicographer of the Occitan language. Mistral won the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1904 and was a founding member of Félibrige and a member of l’Académie de Marseille. He was born in Maillane in the Bouches-du-Rhône département in southern France. His name in his native language was Frederi Mistral (Mistrau) according to the Mistralian orthography or Frederic Mistral (/Mistrau) according to the classical orthography. Mistral’s fame was owing in part to Alphonse de Lamartine who sang his praises in the fortieth edition of his periodical Cours familier de littérature, following the publication of Mistral’s long poem Mirèio. He is the most revered writer in modern Occitan literature. Alphonse Daudet, with whom he maintained a long friendship, devoted to the Poet Mistral one of his Lettres de mon moulin, in an extremely eulogistic way.
The Institut de droit international (Institute of International Law) is an organization devoted to the study and development of international law, whose membership comprises the world’s leading public international lawyers. In 1904 the Institute received the Nobel Peace Prize. The institute was founded by Gustave Moynier and Gustave Rolin-Jaequemyns, together with nine other renowned international lawyers, on this date in 1873 in the Salle de l’Arsenal of the Ghent Town Hall in Belgium. The founders of 1873 were Pasquale Stanislao Mancini (Rome), President, Emile de Laveleye (Liege), Tobias Michael Carel Asser (Amsterdam), James Lorimer (Edinburgh), Wladimir Besobrassof (Saint-Petersburg), Gustave Moynier (Geneva), Jean Gaspar Bluntschli (Heidelberg), Augusto Pierantoni (Naples), Carlos Calvo (Buenos Aires), Gustave Rolin-Jaequemyns (Ghent), and David Dudley Field (New York).
Hideki Yukawa ForMemRS FRSE died on this date in 1981. He was a Japanese theoretical physicist and the first Japanese Nobel laureate. He was born as Hideki Ogawa in Tokyo and grew up in Kyoto. In 1929, after receiving his degree from Kyoto Imperial University, he stayed on as a lecturer for four years. After graduation, he was interested in theoretical physics, particularly in the theory of elementary particles. In 1932, he married Sumi Yukawa, and his family name was changed to Yukawa; they had two sons, Harumi and Takaaki. In 1933 he became an assistant professor at Osaka University. In 1935 he published his theory of mesons, which explained the interaction between protons and neutrons, and was a major influence on research into elementary particles. In 1940 he became a professor in Kyoto University. In 1940 he won the Imperial Prize of the Japan Academy, in 1943 the Decoration of Cultural Merit from the Japanese government. In 1949 he became a professor at Columbia University, the same year he received the Nobel Prize in Physics, after the discovery by Cecil Frank Powell, Giuseppe Occhialini and César Lattes of Yukawa’s predicted pion in 1947. Yukawa also worked on the theory of K-capture, in which a low energy electron is absorbed by the nucleus, after its initial prediction by G. C. Wick. Yukawa became the first chairman of Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics in 1953. He received a Doctorate, honoris causa, from the University of Paris and honorary memberships in the Royal Society, Royal Society of Edinburgh, the Indian Academy of Sciences, the International Academy of Philosophy and Sciences[citation needed], and the Pontificia Academia Scientiarum. He was an editor of Progress of Theoretical Physics and published the books Introduction to Quantum Mechanics (1946) and Introduction to the Theory of Elementary Particles (1948). In 1955, he joined ten other leading scientists and intellectuals in signing the Russell–Einstein Manifesto, calling for nuclear disarmament. Yukawa retired from Kyoto University in 1970 as a Professor Emeritus. Owing to increasing infirmity, in his final years, he appeared in public in a wheelchair. He died at his home in Sakyo-ku, Kyoto, on 8 September 1981 from pneumonia and heart failure, aged 74. His tomb is in Higashiyama-ku, Kyoto.
Hermann Staudinger died on this date in 1965. He was a German chemist who demonstrated the existence of macromolecules, which he characterized as polymers. For this work he received the 1953 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. He is also known for his discovery of ketenes and of the Staudinger reaction.
John Franklin Enders died on this date in 1985. He was an American biomedical scientist and Nobel laureate. Enders has been called “The Father of Modern Vaccines. In 1949, Enders, Thomas Huckle Weller, and Frederick Chapman Robbins reported successful in vitro culture of an animal virus—poliovirus. The three received the 1954 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine “for their discovery of the ability of polioviruses to grow in cultures of various types of tissue”. Meanwhile, Jonas Salk applied the Enders-Weller-Robbins technique to produce large quantities of the polio virus and then developed a polio vaccine in 1952. Upon the 1954 polio vaccine field trial, whose success Salk announced on the radio, Salk became a public hero but failed to credit the many other researchers that his effort rode upon, and was somewhat shunned by America’s scientific establishment. In 1954, Enders and Peebles isolated measles virus from an 11-year-old boy, David Edmonston. Disappointed by polio vaccine’s development and involvement in some cases of polio and death—what Enders attributed to Salk’s technique—Enders began development of measles vaccine. In October 1960, an Enders team began trials on 1,500 mentally retarded children in New York City and on 4,000 children in Nigeria. On 17 September 1961, New York Times announced the measles vaccine effective. Refusing credit for only himself, Enders stressed the collaborative nature of the effort. In 1963, Pfizer introduced a deactivated measles vaccine, and Merck & Co introduced an attenuated measles vaccine.
Willard Frank Libby died on this date in 1980. He was an American physical chemist noted for his role in the 1949 development of radiocarbon dating, a process which revolutionized archaeology. For his contributions to the team that developed this process, Libby was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1960. Libby was appointed Instructor in the Department of Chemistry at the University of California, Berkeley, in 1933 and during the next ten years was promoted successively to Assistant and then Associate Professor of Chemistry. He spent the 1930s building sensitive Geiger counters to measure weak natural and artificial radioactivity. In 1941 he joined Berkeley’s chapter of Alpha Chi Sigma. He was awarded a Guggenheim Memorial Foundation Fellowship in 1941 and elected to work at Princeton University, but on December 8, 1941, this Fellowship was interrupted for war work on America’s entry into World War II, and Libby went to Columbia University on the Manhattan District Project, on leave from the Department of Chemistry, California University, till 1945.[4] Libby was responsible for the gaseous diffusion separation and enrichment of the uranium-235 which was used in the atomic bomb on Hiroshima. In 1945 he became a professor at the University of Chicago. In 1954, he was appointed to the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. In 1959, he became Professor of Chemistry at University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), a position he held until his retirement in 1976. He taught honors freshman chemistry from 1959 to 1963 (in keeping with a University tradition that senior faculty teach this class). He was Director of the University of California statewide Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics (IGPP) for many years including the lunar landing time. He also started the first Environmental Engineering program at UCLA in 1972. Although Libby retired in 1977, he, a member of the National Academy of Sciences, American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and the American Philosophical Society, remained professionally active until his death in 1980.


Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant

On March 11, 2011, Japan’s Fukushima nuclear plant shut down safely following a 9.0 earthquake and the series of tsunamis caused by the earthquake and the aftershocks. More than 25,000 were killed or went missing in the event. Following the shut down of the nuclear plant, sea water flooded many generator sites and the emergency generators failed. The nuclear plant broke down under the pressure of hot spots that melted metal and concrete components. As well, a dangerous accumulation of hydrogen gas threatened the land and sea, people, plants, and animals over a wide area. Japan and the world continue to look for signs that unsafe levels of nuclear waste have been lost from the power plant site. At the same time, Canada’s nuclear industry continues to evolve and manage huge financial reserves. Legislated plans for future plant decommissioning and fuel retirement are providing investment opportunity and investment income. The nuclear energy industry continues to lead development of alternate energy business.
There have been two responses as usual to the accident. Some jurisdictions have recoiled from the risk of nuclear energy projects. Other jurisdictions have used the information to mitigate or avoid these risks in their existing or planned projects. For example, in Ontario, Canada where about sixty percent of electrical power is generated in nuclear plants about two dozen projects were put in place to avoid issues raised by the lessons learned in the Fukushima incident on the northeast coast of Japan. In particular, several nonelectrical solutions were put in place to avoid hydrogen accumulations throughout their plants by introducing venting. Certainly Ontario power plants have little risk of being overwhelmed by a fifteen meter wall of sea water, but these steps are being taken to assure that failures of the power plant systems will be manageable.
Fukushima. Three Mile Island, Chernobyl, The nuclear industry has reminders around the world of catastrophic failures along with the ongoing success of nuclear power. The science fiction ideas of personal reactors seem far fetched today. However, the nuclear industry has taken its place as an industrial giant in science, in medicine, and in energy. The risks remain, countless issues are being work on today and will need solutions by committed technicians and engineers along with oversight by the public. While it is clear that radiation can be measured, controlled and handled very safely while delivering huge benefits to the world, nuclear power remains a public policy initiative that requires transparent, open communications with consumers and all stakeholders in the mining, manufacturing, and utilization of nuclear products.