Society: Arts and Science – January 8

Today is International Thanksgiving Day! A day to celebrate your life in a special way…

Swedish and Norwegian committees bestow Nobel Prizes in recognition of cultural or scientific advances. In 1895, the will of Swedish inventor Alfred Nobel established the prizes.
Emily Greene Balch was born on this date in 1867. She was an American economist and writer. She became a Quaker and won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1946 for her work with the Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom (WILPF). Balch combined an academic career at Wellesley College with a long-standing interest in social issues such as poverty, child labour and immigration, as well as settlement work to uplift poor immigrants and reduce juvenile delinquency. She moved into the peace movement at the start of the World War I in 1914 and began collaborating with Jane Addams of Chicago. She refused to support the war effort when the United States entered the war in 1917 and lost her professorship at Wellesley College. In 1919, Balch played a central role in the International Congress of Women. It changed its name to the Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom and was based in Geneva. She served the League as its first international Secretary-Treasurer, administering the organisation’s activities. She helped set up summer schools on peace education and created new branches in over 50 countries. She cooperated with the newly established League of Nations regarding drug control, aviation, refugees, and disarmament. In World War II, she favoured Allied victory and did not criticise the war effort, but did support the rights of conscientious objectors.
Walther Wilhelm Georg Bothe was born on this date in 1891. He was a German nuclear physicist, who shared the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1954 with Max Born. In 1913, he joined the newly created Laboratory for Radioactivity at the Reich Physical and Technical Institute (PTR), where he remained until 1930, the latter few years as the director of the laboratory. He served in the military during World War I from 1914, and he was a prisoner of war of the Russians, returning to Germany in 1920. Upon his return to the laboratory, he developed and applied coincidence methods to the study of nuclear reactions, the Compton effect, cosmic rays, and the wave-particle duality of radiation, for which he would receive the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1954. In 1930 he became a full professor and director of the physics department at the University of Giessen. In 1932, he became director of the Physical and Radiological Institute at the University of Heidelberg. He was driven out of this position by elements of the Deutsche Physik movement. To preclude his emigration from Germany, he was appointed the director of the Physics Institute of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Medical Research (KWImF) in Heidelberg. There, he built the first operational cyclotron in Germany. Furthermore, he became a principal in the German nuclear energy project, also known as the Uranium Club, which was started in 1939 under the supervision of the Army Ordnance Office. In 1946, in addition to his directorship of the Physics Institute at the KWImf, he was reinstated as a professor at the University of Heidelberg. From 1956 to 1957, he was a member of the Nuclear Physics Working Group in Germany. In the year after Bothe’s death, his Physics Institute at the KWImF was elevated to the status of a new institute under the Max Planck Society and it then became the Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics. Its main building was later named Bothe laboratory.
Melvin Ellis Calvin died on this date in 1997. He was an American chemist most famed for discovering the Calvin cycle along with Andrew Benson and James Bassham, for which he was awarded the 1961 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. He spent most of his five-decade career at the University of California, Berkeley.
Aleksandr Mikhailovich Prokhorov died on this date in 2002. He was a Soviet physicist known for his pioneering research on lasers and masers for which he shared the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1964 with Charles Hard Townes and Nikolay Basov.




Society: Arts and Science – December 14

Today is International Thanksgiving Day! A day to celebrate your life in a special way…

Swedish and Norwegian committees bestow Nobel Prizes in recognition of cultural or scientific advances. In 1895, the will of Swedish inventor Alfred Nobel established the prizes.
Edward Lawrie Tatum was born on this date in 1909. He was an American geneticist. He shared half of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1958 with George Wells Beadle for showing that genes control individual steps in metabolism. The other half of that year’s award went to Joshua Lederberg. Beadle and Tatum’s key experiments involved exposing the bread mould Neurospora crassa to x-rays, causing mutations. In a series of experiments, they showed that these mutations caused changes in specific enzymes involved in metabolic pathways. These experiments, published in 1941, led them to propose a direct link between genes and enzymatic reactions, known as the “one gene, one enzyme” hypothesis. Tatum went on to study genetics in bacteria. An active area of research in his laboratory was to understand the basis of Tryptophan biosynthesis in Escherichia coli. Later, Tatum and his student Joshua Lederberg showed that E. coli could share genetic information through recombination. Tatum was born in Boulder, Colorado. He attended college at the University of Chicago and received his PhD in biochemistry from the University of Wisconsin–Madison in 1934. Starting in 1937, he worked at Stanford University, where he began his collaboration with Beadle. He then moved to Yale University in 1945 where he mentored Lederberg. He returned to Stanford in 1948 and then joined the faculty of Rockefeller Institute in 1957. A heavy cigarette smoker, he died in New York City of heart failure complicated by chronic emphysema.
Nikolay Gennadiyevich Basov was born on this date in 1922. He was a Soviet physicist and educator. For his fundamental work in the field of quantum electronics that led to the development of laser and maser, Basov shared the 1964 Nobel Prize in Physics with Alexander Prokhorov and Charles Hard Townes.

More than a hundred years ago, the Republic of China was just getting organised by Mao following the abdication of Emperor Pu Yi. The Scouts had just been formalised by Royal Charter. The Bolshevik Party under Vladimir Lenin had broken away from other socialists and the first issue of Pravda was in planning. The African National Congress had been announced a couple of weeks ago, still waiting for the arrival of Nelson Mandela. The Robert Scott expedition was already lost on its way back from the South Pole. Wow, what a leap year! We have our own problems today and our own accomplishments are ahead of us. Today, we can improve our personal energy situation.

Residential solar power has been within the reach of us for decades. Depending on your location, passive solar devices like correct window selection, have been used by savvy homeowners. Some have been in situations where they could use solar water heating systems. Most of us have thought about photovoltaic solar panels for generating electricity. As our electrical needs continue to grow, we can help ourselves to the watts bouncing away from our homes and businesses. The expense or complete independence runs into tens of thousands of dollars and the savings can take more than a decade to pay back on the investment. However, partial independence is offered if we use government subsidies effectively.

As the cost of living continues to go up, our utilities are a big part of our personal cost of living. Like with so many things for which we need to plan, doing it now will pay us back when we need it most. Reducing our utility costs can be a way to stay in our homes longer and more comfortably. There are even some pundits who calculate that those of us that install residential renewable energy systems will have an income stream in the decades ahead. Under advisement, I recommend that you consider a renewable energy project as a part of your next renovation or repair.

You can start your planning today. On the internet, you will find a plethora of online guides, videos, and e-books if you are do-it-yourself inclined. Because most are sponsored by garage-based renewable energy enthusiasts , these are efforts to create awareness by making the information free. Be careful. Not everyone can teach, not every video or guide tells you everything you need to know. Do your due diligence, do your research, be serious about what you want to achieve. Whether you will do it yourself or contract the work, you can’t expect that the project will be as simple as picking out an appliance and having it delivered. Fortunately, you can expect that your renewable energy project will deliver on its promises for decades. Here are some early considerations for you.

  1. Be honest. How skilled are you at building and installing things? This will affect the quality and efficiency of your installation. Remember that the best installation is at the highest point of your property. How comfortable are you with roofing work? Are equipped to prevent injury to yourself or others?
  2. Check out the instructions from several perspectives. What are you being asked to do? How will those instructions lead to providing you with renewable energy? Each step should lead you to several questions and concerns. Are these questions and concerns answered? Can you get feedback and support from the consultants you use? This will affect how well your system will function.
  3. What is the total cost of ownership? Kits cost significantly less than professionally built systems but will they function at the same efficiency level? Will you need to purchase other parts? Will you need to purchase permits or inspections? What ongoing costs or services are required?

Society: Arts and Science – September 25


The Nobel Prize is bestowed annually in categories as selected by Swedish and Norwegian committees in recognition of cultural or scientific advances. The 1895 will of Swedish inventor Alfred Nobel established the prizes.
Thomas Hunt Morgan was born on this date in 1866. He was an American evolutionary biologist, geneticist and embryologist and science author who won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1933 for discoveries elucidating the role that the chromosome plays in heredity. Morgan received his PhD from Johns Hopkins University in zoology in 1890 and researched embryology during his tenure at Bryn Mawr. Following the rediscovery of Mendelian inheritance in 1900, Morgan’s research moved to the study of mutation in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. In his famous Fly Room at Columbia University, Morgan demonstrated that genes are carried on chromosomes and are the mechanical basis of heredity. These discoveries formed the basis of the modern science of genetics. During his distinguished career, Morgan wrote twenty two books and 370 scientific papers. As a result of his work, Drosophila became a major model organism in contemporary genetics. The Division of Biology which he established at the California Institute of Technology has produced seven Nobel Prize winners.
William Cuthbert Faulkner was born on this date in 1897. He was an American writer and Nobel Prize laureate from Oxford, Mississippi. Faulkner wrote novels, short stories, a play, poetry, essays and screenplays. He is primarily known for his stories set in the fictional Yoknapatawpha County, based on Lafayette County, Mississippi, where he spent most of his life. Faulkner is one of the most celebrated writers in American literature generally and Southern literature specifically. Though his work was published as early as 1919, and largely during the 1920s and 1930s, Faulkner was relatively unknown until receiving the 1949 Nobel Prize in Literature. Two of his works, A Fable (1954) and his last novel The Reivers (1962), won the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction. In 1998, the Modern Library ranked his 1929 novel The Sound and the Fury sixth on its list of the 100 best English-language novels of the twentieth century; also on the list were As I Lay Dying (1930) and Light in August (1932). Absalom, Absalom! (1936) is often included on similar lists.
Nikolay Nikolayevich Semyonov, ForMemRS died on this date in 1986. He was a Russian/Soviet physicist and chemist. Semyonov was awarded the 1956 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his work on the mechanism of chemical transformation.


Society: Arts and Science- July 11



The Nobel Prize is bestowed annually in categories as selected by Swedish and Norwegian committees in recognition of cultural or scientific advances. The 1895 will of Swedish inventor Alfred Nobel established the prizes.
Pär Fabian Lagerkvist died on this date in 1974. He was a Swedish author who received the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1951. Lagerkvist wrote poems, plays, novels, stories, and essays of considerable expressive power and influence[citation needed] from his early 20s to his late 70s. One of his central themes was the fundamental question of good and evil, which he examined through such figures as Barabbas, the man who was freed instead of Jesus, and Ahasuerus, the Wandering Jew. As a moralist, he used religious motifs and figures from the Christian tradition without following the doctrines of the church.
Aleksandr Mikhailovich Prokhorov was born on this date in 1916. He was a Soviet physicist known for his pioneering research on lasers and masers for which he shared the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1964 with Charles Hard Townes and Nikolay Basov.


Society: Arts and Science- July 8


Nobel Prizes are selected annually by Swedish and Norwegian committees in recognition of cultural or scientific advances. The 1895 will of Swedish inventor Alfred Nobel established the prizes.
Igor Yevgenyevich Tamm was born on this date in 1895. He was a Soviet Russian physicist who received the 1958 Nobel Prize in Physics, jointly with Pavel Alekseyevich Cherenkov and Ilya Frank, for their 1934 discovery of Cherenkov radiation.
Sin’ichirō Tomonaga died on this date in 1979. He was a Japanese physicist, influential in the development of quantum electrodynamics for which he was jointly awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1965 along with Richard Feynman and Julian Schwinger. Born in Tokyo, he was the second child and eldest son of a Japanese philosopher, Tomonaga Sanjūrō. He entered the Kyoto Imperial University in 1926. Hideki Yukawa, also a Nobel Prize winner, was one of his classmates during undergraduate school. During graduate school at the same university, he worked for three years as a lab assistant. After graduate school, he joined Nishina’s group in Riken. In 1937, while working at Leipzig University, he collaborated with the Werner Heisenberg research group. Two years later, he returned to Japan due to the outbreak of the Second World War, but finished his doctoral degree in the study of nuclear materials with his thesis extending work done while in Leipzig. In Japan, he was appointed to a professorship at the Tokyo University of Education. During the war, he studied the magnetron, meson theory, and his “super-many-time” theory. In 1931, he became a researcher in Yoshio Nishina’s laboratory at RIKEN. In 1948, he and his students re-examined a 1939 paper by Sidney Dancoff that attempted but failed, to show that the infinite quantities that arise in QED can be cancelled with each other. Tomonaga applied his super-many-time theory and a relativistic method based on the non-relativistic method of Wolfgang Pauli and Fierz to greatly speed up and clarify the calculations. Then he and his students found that Dancoff had overlooked one term in the perturbation series. With this term, the theory gave finite results; thus Tomonaga discovered the renormalization method independently of Julian Schwinger and calculated physical quantities such as the Lamb shift at the same time. In the next year, he was invited by Robert Oppenheimer to work at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton. He studied a many-body problem on the collective oscillations of a quantum-mechanical system. In the following year, he returned to Japan and proposed the Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid. In 1965, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics, with Julian Schwinger and Richard P. Feynman, for the study of QED, specifically for the discovery of the renormalization method. He died of throat cancer in Tokyo in 1979.He was awarded the Order of Culture in 1952 and the Grand Cordon of the Order of the Rising Sun in 1976.
Robert Burns Woodward died on this date in 1979. He was an American organic chemist. He is considered by many to be one of the pre-eminent organic chemists of the twentieth century, having made many key contributions to the subject, especially in the synthesis of complex natural products and the determination of their molecular structure. He also worked closely with Roald Hoffmann on theoretical studies of chemical reactions. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1965.


Society: Arts and Science – June 22


The Nobel Prize is bestowed annually in categories as selected by Swedish and Norwegian committees in recognition of cultural or scientific advances. The 1895 will of Swedish inventor Alfred Nobel established the prizes.
Ilya Mikhailovich Frank died on this date in 1990. He was a Soviet winner of the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1958 jointly with Pavel Alekseyevich Cherenkov and Igor Y. Tamm, also of the Soviet Union. He received the award for his work in explaining the phenomenon of Cherenkov radiation. He received the Stalin prize in 1946 and 1953 and the USSR state prize in 1971.


Society: Arts and Science – May 30


The Nobel Prize is bestowed annually in categories as selected by Swedish and Norwegian committees in recognition of cultural or scientific advances. The 1895 will of Swedish inventor Alfred Nobel established the prizes.
Boris Leonidovich Pasternak died on this date in 1960. Hw was a Russian poet, novelist, and literary translator. In his native Russia, Pasternak’s first book of poems, My Sister, Life (1917), is one of the most influential collections ever published in the Russian language. Pasternak’s translations of stage plays by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Friedrich Schiller, Pedro Calderón de la Barca, and William Shakespeare remain very popular with Russian audiences. Outside Russia, Pasternak is best known as the author of Doctor Zhivago (1958), a novel which takes place between the Russian Revolution of 1905 and the Second World War. Due to the novel’s independent-minded stance on the socialist state, Doctor Zhivago was rejected for publication in the USSR. At the instigation of Giangiacomo Feltrinelli, Doctor Zhivago was smuggled to Milan and published in 1957. Pasternak was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1958, an event which both humiliated and enraged the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, which forced him to decline the prize, though his descendants were later to accept it in his name in 1988.
Sir Andrew Fielding Huxley OM PRS died on this date in 2012. He was a Nobel Prize-winning English physiologist and biophysicist.[1][2] He was born into the prominent Huxley family. After graduating from Westminster School in Central London, from where he won a scholarship to Trinity College, Cambridge, he joined Alan Lloyd Hodgkin to study nerve impulses. Their eventual discovery of the basis for propagation of nerve impulses (called an action potential) earned them the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1963. They made their discovery from the giant axon of the Atlantic squid. Soon after the outbreak of the Second World War, Huxley was recruited by the British Anti-Aircraft Command and later transferred to the Admiralty. After the war he resumed research at The University of Cambridge, where he developed interference microscopy that would be suitable for studying muscle fibres. In 1952 he was joined by a German physiologist Rolf Niedergerke. Together they discovered in 1954 the mechanism of muscle contraction, popularly called the “sliding filament theory”, which is the foundation of our modern understanding of muscle mechanics. In 1960 he became head of the Department of Physiology at University College London. He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1955, and President in 1980. The Royal Society awarded him the Copley Medal in 1973 for his collective contributions to the understanding of nerve impulses and muscle contraction. He was conferred a Knight Bachelor by Queen Elizabeth II in 1974, and was appointed to the Order of Merit in 1983. He was a fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge, until his death.